- When was it decided there should be four gospels?
- Were gospels removed from the Bible?
- What makes the 4 Gospels Different?
- Is there any evidence for the reliability of the four gospels?
- Primary source materials on Gospels
Codex Schoyen: Does this manuscript really contain a very early alternative version of the Gospel of Matthew?
Codex Schoyen 2650 is a very early (AD 300-350?), fragmentary yet substantial manuscript of Matthew's Gospel. It was written in a rare dialect of Coptic (Middle Egyptian), which was the language spoken by many Egyptians in late antiquity. H.-M. Schenke, who reconstructed its fragmentary text and published a transcription with photographs (Hermes Publishing, 2001), made the sensational claim that it is a translation of a "non-canonical" version of Matthew. (For more background: Schoyen Collection).
Schenke stated that Codex Schoyen's text was derived (through Greek translation) from an underlying Hebrew text, reopening the case for an original Hebrew Matthew, and illuminating the famous statement by Papias that Matthew was composed in the Hebrew dialect. Schenke suggested that this Hebrew text was so different from canonical Matthew that early church fathers might have condemned it as incomplete, falsified, and mutilated, as Epiphanius said of the Gospel of the Ebionites. The implications of this striking claim, as Schenke argued, undermine the standard theory of the origins of the first three Gospels, namely, that Mark's Gospel was written first, and that Matthew and Luke incorporated much of Mark into their own Gospels.
More significantly, Schenke's hypothetical retranslation of the Coptic text back into Greek suggests a text wildly divergent from all known manuscripts of Matthew's Gospel. If true, such divergence would be all the more significant since Codex Schoyen may possibly represent the earliest witness in any language to Matthew's Gospel in at least 11 entire chapters. However, Schenke's retranslation assumes that the Coptic was a slavish, "this is that" formal translation of the Greek, often without considering basic factors of translation. Thus, New Testament versions expert Tjitze Baarda wrote an article and a review criticising Schenke's conclusions and calling for further examination of the freedom which an early Coptic translator might have deemed appropriate for himself.
Thus, many of the striking differences found in Codex Schoyen may have been produced at the point of translation, rather than derived from its underlying Greek text. In particular, the translator seemed uninterested in producing a syntactically equivalent translation. This contrasts starkly with Schenke's formal, "this is that" mechanistic retranslation which exaggerates the differences between Codex Schoyen and the rest of the Matthean manuscript tradition. While more analysis is necessary, many differences which initially seem striking probably do not derive from an exotic underlying Greek text, but rather from mundane translation factors and typical scribal tendencies.
Brian T. Gladden, Dell's arch banking administrator for Dell said that its barter are aloof alpha to advancement to Windows 7 Activation Key from OSes like XP and Vista.Then added: "Windows 8 has been from our standpoint, not necessarily the agitator to drive accelerated advance that we had hoped it would be."It's apparently a safe bet that added than a few of Dell's millions of barter are still application XP.The connected assurance on XP is potentially a botheration for a articulation of users because abutment for XP will end on April 8, 2014. Here's what Microsoft says. "Support for Windows 7 Activation Key is catastrophe on April 8, 2014. If you're active this adaptation afterwards abutment ends, you won't get aegis updates for Windows."Obviously the best accessible aberration amid Windows 8 and its accepted antecedent is the user interface.Windows 7 Activation Key accurate touch, but it wasn't ideal - the controls artlessly weren't acceptable enough. However, things accept bigger abundantly in agreement of the blow abutment in Windows 7 Activation Key. First of all, blow abutment on the Desktop is far, far bigger and you can alike abutting windows and baddest card items after affair - Windows has congenital intelligence to acquaint it what you are aggravating to do. Windows 8 isn't a buzz OS - but does allotment a abundant accord of architecture accent and cipher with its sibling, the new Windows Buzz 8.
©2009 James M. Leonard
Jesus and the Eyewitnesses
By Richard Bauckham
This new book argues that the four Gospels are closely based on eyewitness testimony of those who knew Jesus.
The Gospel of Judas
by Simon Gathercole
`Judas' is synonymous with `traitor'. But a newly-discovered ancient text of the Gospel of Judas offers a picture of Judas Iscariot radically different from the Church's traditional understanding of him, and maintains that far from being the infamous betrayer, Judas was actually Jesus' trusted friend and the recipient of secret revelation. Simon Gathercole's new book includes a translation of the ancient Egyptian text of the Gospel of Judas and a running commentary, and offers new translations of all the ancient evidence about Judas Iscariot and the Gospel attributed to him... more
The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ
by Martin Hengel
How could the word, 'gospel', be used both by Paul for a proclamation which seems to include no narrative about the earthly Jesus, and by the author of the Gospel according to Mark and his successors, as a title works, which adopt an essentially narrative form? Why did the church, in forming its canon of scripture, choose to include four different and sometimes contradictory accounts of the life of Jesus, when others, like Tatian and Marcion, opted for a harmony, for one account? more